GasderMIN

Contributors: Aude Bernheim

Description

Gasdermin proteins were initially discovered in humans. Recently they were shown to be present in multiple bacteria, where they are almost always encoded in an operon together with a protease. The experimental validation of the antiphage activity of bacterial gasdermins was demonstrated through the heterologous expression of a 4-genes operon from Lysobacter in E. coli (, ) .

Molecular Mechanism

Akin to their human counterparts, bacterial gasdermins encode a C-terminal inhibitory domain. Following phage infection, proteases associated with bacterial gasdermin cleave this domain triggering oligomerization of gasdermins into large, membrane-breaching pores () leading to cell death:ref{doi=10.1101/2023.05.28.542683}. As such gasdermins containing systems are abortive infection systems. rIIB, a protein allowing T6 to overcome the RexAB system was shown to activate gasdermin. It was further shown that CARD domains are also essential in bacterial gasdermins defense () .

Example of genomic structure

The GasderMIN is composed of 1 protein: bGSDM.

Here is an example found in the RefSeq database:

The GasderMIN system in Flavobacterium johnsoniae (GCF_000016645.1, NC_009441) is composed of 1 protein: bGSDM (WP_012023900.1)

Distribution of the system among prokaryotes

Among the 22,803 complete genomes of RefSeq, the GasderMIN is detected in 27 genomes (0.12 %).

The system was detected in 26 different species.

Proportion of genome encoding the GasderMIN system for the 14 phyla with more than 50 genomes in the RefSeq database.

Structure

GasderMIN

Example 1

Experimental validation

      
graph LR;
    Johnson_2022[Johnson et al., 2022] --> Origin_0
    Origin_0[Lysobacter enzymogenes 
2841794907, 2841794908,
2841794909, 2841794910] --> Expressed_0[Escherichia coli]
    Expressed_0[Escherichia coli] ----> T5 & T4 & T6
    subgraph Title1[Reference]
        Johnson_2022
end
    subgraph Title2[System origin]
        Origin_0
end
    subgraph Title3[Expression species]
        Expressed_0
end
    subgraph Title4[Protects against]
        T5
        T4
        T6
end
    style Title1 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title2 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title3 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title4 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none

    

References

10.1126/science.abj8432
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10.1101/2023.05.28.542683
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