Hachiman

Description

Hachiman Type 1 systems were the first discovered and can be found in 3.4% of microbial genomes () . Hachiman Type 1 systems are encoded by two genes, hamA (annotated as a Domain of Unknown Function, DUF) and hamB (annotated as a helicase) ()

More recently, Hachiman Type 2 systems were discovered and appeared to include a third gene, encoded for a DUF protein (HamC) () .

Molecular mechanism

As far as we are aware, the molecular mechanism is unknown.

Example of genomic structure

The Hachiman is composed of 2 proteins: HamA and HamB.

Here is an example found in the RefSeq database:

The Hachiman system in Vibrio metschnikovii (GCF_009763925.1, NZ_CP046822) is composed of 2 proteins HamA_1 (WP_158137983.1) HamB (WP_158137986.1)

Distribution of the system among prokaryotes

Among the 22,803 complete genomes of RefSeq, the Hachiman is detected in 1256 genomes (5.51 %).

The system was detected in 541 different species.

Proportion of genome encoding the Hachiman system for the 14 phyla with more than 50 genomes in the RefSeq database.

Structure

Hachiman

Example 1

Experimental validation

      
graph LR;
    Doron_2018[Doron et al., 2018] --> Origin_0
    Origin_0[Bacillus cereus 
KLA13163.1, KLA13162.1] --> Expressed_0[Bacillus subtilis]
    Expressed_0[Bacillus subtilis] ----> SBSphiJ & phi3T & SPbeta & SPR & phi105 & rho14 & phi29
    Payne_2021[Payne et al., 2021] --> Origin_1
    Origin_1[ Hachiman Type II
Sphingopyxis witflariensis 
WP_201791916.1, WP_201791915.1,
WP_088473955.1] --> Expressed_1[Escherichia coli]
    Expressed_1[Escherichia coli] ----> T3 & PVP-SE1
    subgraph Title1[Reference]
        Doron_2018
        Payne_2021
end
    subgraph Title2[System origin]
        Origin_0
        Origin_1
end
    subgraph Title3[Expression species]
        Expressed_0
        Expressed_1
end
    subgraph Title4[Protects against]
        SBSphiJ
        phi3T
        SPbeta
        SPR
        phi105
        rho14
        phi29
        T3
        PVP-SE1
end
    style Title1 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title2 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title3 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title4 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none

    

References

10.1126/science.aar4120
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10.1093/nar/gkac400
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