Lit

Contributors: Lucas Paoli

Description

Lit was first identified in 1989 () , stands for late inhibitors of T4 and was found to inhibit phage T4 in Escherichia coli (K12). The Lit gene is found in the e14 cryptic prophage () . Lit is also partially active against other T-even phages () .

Molecular mechanisms

The Lit system detects cleaves EF-Tu translation factor () at a late stage of phage maturation, when the major capsid protein binds to EF-Tu and triggers its cleavage by Lit () . As a result, the translation is inhibited, which ultimately leads to cell death. Lit is part of the abortive infection category of defense systems.

Example of genomic structure

The Lit is composed of 1 protein: Lit.

Here is an example found in the RefSeq database:

The Lit system in Klebsiella pneumoniae (GCF_002180175.1, NZ_CP021686) is composed of 1 protein: Lit (WP_223861284.1)

Distribution of the system among prokaryotes

Among the 22,803 complete genomes of RefSeq, the Lit is detected in 222 genomes (0.97 %).

The system was detected in 78 different species.

Proportion of genome encoding the Lit system for the 14 phyla with more than 50 genomes in the RefSeq database.

Structure

Lit

Example 1

Experimental validation

      
graph LR;
    Yu_1994[Yu and  Snyder, 1994] --> Origin_0
    Origin_0[Escherichia coli defective prophage e14 
WP_001257372.1] --> Expressed_0[Escherichia coli]
    Expressed_0[Escherichia coli] ----> T4
    subgraph Title1[Reference]
        Yu_1994
end
    subgraph Title2[System origin]
        Origin_0
end
    subgraph Title3[Expression species]
        Expressed_0
end
    subgraph Title4[Protects against]
        T4
end
    style Title1 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title2 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title3 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title4 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none

    

References

10.1128/jb.169.3.1232-1238.1987
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10.1128/jb.170.5.2056-2062.1988
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10.1073/pnas.91.2.802
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10.1074/jbc.M002546200
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10.1186/1743-422X-7-360
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