Paris

Contributors: Lucas Paoli

Description

PARIS (for Phage Anti-Restriction-Induced System) is a novel anti-phage system. It comprises an ATPase associated with a DUF4435 protein, which can be found either as a two-gene cassette or a single-gene fusion () .

Molecular mechanisms

This system relies on an unknown Abortive infection mechanism to trigger growth arrest upon sensing a phage-encoded protein (Ocr). Interestingly, the Ocr protein has been found to inhibit R-M systems and BREX systems, making PARIS a suitable defense mechanism against RM resistant and/or BREX resistant phages (, , )

Example of genomic structure

A total of 2 subsystems have been described for the Rst_PARIS system. The classical Paris is composed of two proteins AriA and AriB. The other type of Paris is the fused version with one AriAB protein.

Here is some examples found in the RefSeq database:

The PARIS_I system in Streptomyces sampsonii (GCF_001704195.1, NZ_CP016824) is composed of 2 proteins AriA_AAA15 (WP_079165307.1) AriB_DUF4435_I (WP_143067273.1)

The PARIS_I_merge system in Rhizobium sp. SL42 (GCF_021729845.1, NZ_CP063397) is composed of 1 protein: AAA_15_DUF4435 (WP_237370054.1)

Distribution of the system among prokaryotes

Among the 22,803 complete genomes of RefSeq, the Paris is detected in 1128 genomes (4.95 %).

The system was detected in 518 different species.

Proportion of genome encoding the Paris system for the 14 phyla with more than 50 genomes in the RefSeq database.

Structure

PARIS_I

Example 1

PARIS_II

Example 1

PARIS_II_merge

Example 1

PARIS_I_merge

Example 1

Experimental validation

      
graph LR;
    Rousset_2022[Rousset et al., 2022] --> Origin_0
    Origin_0[ Paris 1
Escherichia coli  P4 loci 
WP_000334847.1, WP_000342409.1] --> Expressed_0[Escherichia coli]
    Expressed_0[Escherichia coli] ----> Lambda & T4 & CLB_P2 & LF82_P8 & Al505_P2 & T7
    Rousset_2022[Rousset et al., 2022] --> Origin_1
    Origin_1[ Paris 2
Escherichia coli P4 loci 
WP_001007866.1, WP_000093097.1] --> Expressed_1[Escherichia coli]
    Expressed_1[Escherichia coli] ----> Lambda & T4 & CLB_P2 & LF82_P8 & T7
    subgraph Title1[Reference]
        Rousset_2022
end
    subgraph Title2[System origin]
        Origin_0
        Origin_1
end
    subgraph Title3[Expression species]
        Expressed_0
        Expressed_1
end
    subgraph Title4[Protects against]
        Lambda
        T4
        CLB_P2
        LF82_P8
        Al505_P2
        T7
        Lambda
        T4
        CLB_P2
        LF82_P8
        T7
end
    style Title1 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title2 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title3 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none
    style Title4 fill:none,stroke:none,stroke-width:none

    

References

10.1016/j.chom.2022.02.018
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10.1093/nar/gkaa510
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10.1007/BF01036001
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